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A Guide to Eye Anatomy from Latisse

Our eyesight is often considered the most important sense out of our five senses. The human eye, a complex organ, demonstrates the architectural wonders of the human body. The eye like a camera refracts light and produces clear images that stimulate our brains with neural responses, which enables us to see. There is much involved with the anatomy and physiology of the human eye; each component has their own functions that serve a higher purpose.

In order for us to see, many different parts of the eyes are involved behind the scenes at work. More than any of the rest of the senses, our sight allows us to not only observe but learn more about the world. If something were to go wrong with the iris, optic nerve, or retina, our vision can become impaired. Let’s explore all the parts of the eye to find out what they do!

The Sclera

  • Known as the white of the eye is the sclera
  • The dense white area encloses the eyeball and maintains the shape of the globe.
  • Plainly visible whenever the eye is open, the exterior white outer coat has a smooth texture.
  • The interior is ridged and brown.
  • The sclera is strong and flexible.
  • Kept in place by tendons (strong tissues).

The Cornea

  • The cornea is a clear part that covers the whole exterior of the eye.
  • It is a refractive surface.
  • The cornea has no blood vessels since transparency is of prime importance.
  • The cornea has to stay transparent to refract light.
  • One of the most sensitive issues of the body full of nerve fibers.
  • Tears that wash across the cornea supply it with water and oxygen.

The Iris and Pupil

  • The colored area in shades of brown, blue, hazel, green, and grey of the eyes is the iris. The pupil is the name of the hole in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to enter the retina.
  • The iris is a muscle. When it contracts (shrinks), the pupil becomes small and less light enters the eye. In the dark, the iris dilates (becomes larger), so that more light passes through the pupil.

The Posterior and Anterior Chambers

  • The anterior (front) chamber is the area that lies between the iris and the cornea.
  • The posterior (back) chamber is the small space between the lens and the iris.
  • These two chambers are filled with aqueous humor, a transparent fluid.
  • Pressure in these areas helps to keep the shape of the eye round. They also provide correct spacing between the eye parts to ensure correct vision.

The Lens

  • The lens is located behind the iris.
  • It is made up of several layers of water and proteins.
  • The lens is the part that focuses light rays that pass through the eye.
  • The lens can change shape during our growing years. It stops changing shape after the age of 50.
  • When the lens deteriorates, it means that reading glasses are required to correct the vision.

Vitreous Humor in the Eye

  • With a clear jell, the Vitreous Humor fills the area between the retina and the lens.
  • Like the aqueous humor, it helps to maintain the eye’s shape.
  • The vitreous humor also exists to keep the retina in place.

The Retina

  • The retina contains a lining located in the back of the eye
  • The retina is a tissue, which is very sensitive to light because it contains photoreceptors.
  • Photoreceptors are biological sensors, which turns light rays into electrical signals. The electrical signals then travel via the optic nerve to the brain.
  • Photoreceptors come in two forms: rods and cones. Rods are used to pick up light in dark places, while cones function for bright light and color.

The Macula

  • The macula is a yellow spot near the center of the retina.
  • The macula is adept at sharp, detailed vision used for reading, driving, and watching TV.
  • The macula deteriorates with age that leads to a decline in vision.

The Fovea

  • The fovea is the central part of the macula, responsible for sharp central vision.
  • The fovea contains a high amount of cone photoreceptors.


  • An ophthalmoscope is a tool that doctors use to examine the retina and the vitreous humor in addition to other inner parts of the eye.
  • The doctor shines a light inside the eye and looks through an eyepiece to observe the different anatomy.
  • Ophthalmoscope magnifies the view of the eye, so that doctors can see the details.
  • Sometimes doctors use eye-drops on the patient to dilate the pupils so that they can see inside more easily.

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